ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRIC CHARGES' FORMATION PROCESSES IN THE NEARSURFACE AIR LAYER
Ключевые слова:atmospheric charges, ionization, electrification, corona. turbulence, diffusion, convection, aerosols, clouds, field strength, generation, two-aggregate state.
Atmospheric electric charges' formation processes in the nearsurface air layer are considered in this work. Electrical energy extraction from atmospheric charges for industrial use, as well as the management of the meteorological situation in a locally taken area, partially solves the problem of a water resources' shortage in the Turkestan region. The appearance of a negative space charge near the clouds should be accompanied by diffusion currents bringing a negative charge to the Earth. The nature of the decrease in the field strength with distance from the cloud to the ground shows that this field is formed not directly by the charges of the cloud, but by those charges that create and redistribute these clouds. Clouds do not act as field generators, but as space charge generators in the atmosphere. Depending on the cloud activity it can give discharges following each other with an interval from several seconds to several tens of seconds. Two fields of electric charge generation are considered in detail: the field in the region of the zero isotherm associated with the melting of ice aggregates, and the field in the upper part of the thunderstorm cloud associated with collisional mechanisms of charge separation. Results of numerical modelling of electric field parameters show that with weak turbulent mixing near the Earth's surface, there is a maximum of the positive space charge, and a layer with a negative volumetric charge appears above the maximum vertical distribution of the turbulence coefficient.